Overview: The first organization in modern Russian history which is named after its leaders (Yavlinsky, Boldyrev and Lukin). Following the resignation of Yuri Boldyrev, the most influential members surrounding the leader, Yavlinsky, are Vladimir Lukin and Viacheslav Igrunov. Informal members of the association include: the Petersburg Regional Center Party, the right (liberal) wing of the Social Democratic Party of Russia, and the Democratic Alternative Party of Viacheslav Shostakovsky and Igor Yakovenko.
Top three Candidates in the Federal Party list: Grigory Yavlinsky, 43, leader of the "Yabloko" faction in the State Duma, former deputy Chairman of the RSFSR Council of Ministers for economic reform, and author of the "500 Days" economic reform program; Vladimir Lukin, 58, Chairman of the Duma Committee for International Affairs, former Russian Ambassador to the USA; and Tatiyana Yarygina.
Political Orientation: "Yabloko" is the most fiercely (in the democratic camp) opposed party to the policies of President Yeltsin and Prime Minister Chernomyrdin and is known for the sharpest criticism, of the Gaidar reforms.
Leading Candidates in the Federal Party List: Chairman of the Mining and Metallurgical Workers' Union, Boris Misnik, 57; president of the industrial group Interprom, Mikhail Yuriev; journalist Yury Shchekochikhin; the son of Aleksandr Men, Mikhail Men; 22 deputies of the outgoing State Duma (including Viacheslav Igrunov, Aleksei Melnikov, Viktor Sheinis, Sergei Mitrokhin, Mikhail Zadornov, Valery Borshchyov, the social democrat Igor Lukashov) and one Federation Council deputy (Yelena Mizulina).
"Yabloko" had a 27-strong faction in the previous State Duma.
Overview: Conceived as a serious alternative to Zhirinovsky and the Communists. The electoral association is made up of the followers of Boris Fyodorov.
Top three Candidates in the Federal Party list: Boris Fyodorov, 37, former Finance Minister of the RF; Bela Denisenko, 54, Chairperson of the State Duma Committee for Health Protection who advocates the restoration of a constitutional monarchy in Russia; and Aleksandr Vladislavlev.
Political Orientation: It differs from other groups of democrats by its emphasis on "patriotism" (including in Chechen question) and by its sharply negative attitude to the President and the Premier (which it shares with the Yavlinsky bloc). Fyodorov likes to compare his movement with the Republican Party of the USA and "Yabloko" with the Democratic Party and has expressed hope that they will eventually emerge as the only political forces in Russia.
Leading Candidates in the Federal Party list: Chairman of the Solidarity trade union Aleksei Chernykh; State Duma deputies Vadim Boiko and Igor Ustinov.
In the previous State Duma the equivalent of Forward Russia was the group of 11 deputies which called itself the Liberal-Democratic Alliance - December 12.
Overview: The bloc consists of the Republican Party of the Russian Federation (RPRF) that was formed in 1990 based on the "Democratic Platform within the CPSU" headed by V. Lysenko; the Young Republicans Union and the Committee of Soldiers' Mothers of Russia (the Committee was set up in 1989 and is headed by Maria Kirbasova). Actually, the bloc is an alliance of the followers of three political figures (Ella Pamfilova, Aleksandr Gurov and Vladimir Lysenko) commanding various degrees of popularity in different circles.
Top three Candidates in the Federal Party list: Ella Pamfilova, 42, Deputy of the State Duma, former Minister of Social Protection in the Gaidar government and former member of Russia's Choice movement; Aleksandr Gurov, 50, writer, former People's Deputy of the RSFSR, head of the Directorate for Organized Crime Control within the Interior Ministry of the USSR; Vladimir Lysenko, 39, leader of the RPRF, founder of the Democratic Platform within the CPSU.
Political Orientation: On most issues its positions are similar to those of "Yabloko" while being more moderate in the criticism of the policies of the Chernomyrdin and Gaidar governments. The participation of former court investigator-turned journalist Aleksandr Gurov lends the bloc an "anti-Mafia" tinge.
Leading Candidates in the Federal Party list: director general of the VIP Club, member of the Politburo of the Beer Lovers Party, Oleg Gladkikh; chairperson of the Committee of Soldiers' Mothers, Maria Kirbasova; Arkadiy Kramarev, former chief of the Interior Affairs department of St. Petersburg, sacked by mayor Sobchak; Chairman of the Coordinating Council of the Democratic Forces of Tatarstan, Gennady Martynov.
The list of candidates includes two deputies of the previous State Duma (Pamfilova, an independent representing Russia's Choice; and Vladimir Lysenko, elected by the ticket of "Yabloko").
Overview: A radical-liberal party which gained notoriety by unorthodox campaigning methods that seemed very strange to liberals and intellectuals. The party of the followers of the famous businessman Kostantin Borovoi. It has created an informal bloc with the Democratic Union of Russia (DSR) led by Valeria Novodvorskaya.
Top three Candidates in the Federal Party list: Konstantin Borovoi, 47, co-Chairman of PES, made at least 4 attempts, all unsuccessful, to get himself elected a People's Deputy of the USSR, the RSFSR and the State Duma; State Duma Deputy Leonid Nekrasov; Secretary General of the PES Leonid Shpigel.
Leading Candidates in the Federal Party List: First vice-president of the JSC Rosshtern, Vadim Yukhnovich; Valeria Novodvorskaya, 45, leader of the "Democratic Union of Russia", an ardent personal supporter of Dzhokhar Dudaev and Shamil Basayev; Anastasia Grusha, chairperson of the Youth Movement, an arm of the PES; Cosmonaut Vladimir Kovalyonok was originally in third place, but later dropped out.